中國濕地水鳥

濕地鳥類是濕地野生動物中最具代表性的類群,是濕地生態系統的重要組成部分,靈敏和深刻地反映著濕地環境的變遷。

據統計,目前我國有濕地水鳥12目32科271種,其中屬國家重點保護的水鳥有10目18科56種,屬國家保護的有益或者有重要經濟、科學研究價值的水鳥有10目25科195種。按居留型可分為夏候鳥、冬候鳥、留鳥和旅鳥4類,其中大部分是候鳥和旅鳥。在亞洲57種瀕危鳥類中,中國濕地內就有31種,占54%;全世界鶴類有15種,中國有記錄的就有9種,占60%;全世界雁鴨類有166種,中國濕地就有50種,占30%。

我國濕地水鳥的分布是與各地的氣候、水文、植被等自然地理特點相適應的。北方處于寒溫帶和溫帶,種類以夏候鳥和旅鳥占優勢;南方處于亞熱帶和熱帶,種類以冬候鳥和留鳥占優勢。很多水鳥都是在北方繁殖,到南方越冬。

 

中國主要水鳥名錄

序號中文名學名英文名
潛鳥目 GAVIIFORMES
潛鳥科 Gaviidae (4)
1紅喉潛鳥 Gavia stellataRed-throated Diver
2太平洋潛鳥 Gavia pacificaPacific Diver
3黑喉潛鳥 Gavia arcticaBlack-throated Diver
4白嘴潛鳥 Gavia adamsiiWhite-billed Diver
??目 PODICIPEDIFORMES
??科 Podicipedidae (5)
5小?? Tachybaptus ruficollisLittle Grebe
6角?? Podiceps auritusHorned Grebe
7黑頸?? Podiceps nigricollisBlack-necked Grebe
8鳳頭?? Podiceps cristatusGreat CrestedGrebe
9赤頸?? Podiceps grisegenaRed-necked Grebe
鹱形目 PROCELLARIIFORMES
信天翁科 Diomedeidae(2)
10短尾信天翁 Diomedea albatrusShort-tailedAlbatross
11黑腳信天翁 Diomedea nigripesBlack-footed Albatross
鹱科 Procellariidae(8)
12暴風鹱 Fulmarus glacialisPacific Fulmar
13白額鹱 Puffinus leucomelasWhite-frontedShearwater
14曳尾鹱 Puffinus pacificusWedge-tailed Shearwater
15灰鹱 Puffinus griseusGrey Shearwater
16短尾鹱 Puffinus tenuirostris Short-tailedShearwater
17鉤嘴圓尾鹱 Pterodroma rostrataT ahiti Petrel
18點額圓尾鹱 Pterodroma hypoleucaBonin Petrel
19純褐鹱 Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer's Petrel
海燕科 Hydrobatidae(2)
20白腰叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma leucorhoaFork-tailed Storm Petrel
21黑叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma monorhisSwinhoe's Storm Petrel
鵜形目 PELACANIFORMES
鸏科 Phaethontidae(3)
22短尾鸏 Phaethon aethereus Short-tailed Tropic-bird
23紅尾鸏 Phaethon rubricaudaRed-tailed Tropic-bird
24白尾鸏 Phaethon lepturusLong-tailed Tropic-bird
鵜鶘科 Pelecanidae (2)
25白鵜鶘 Pelecanus onocrotalusEastern White Pelican
26斑嘴鵜鶘 Pelecanus philippensisSpot-billed Pelican
鰹鳥科 Sulidae(2)
27紅腳鰹鳥 Sula sulaRed-footed Booby
28褐鰹鳥 Sula leucogasterBrown Booby
鸕鶿科 Phalacrocoracidae (5)
29[普通]鸕鶿 Phalacrocorax carboCommon Cormorant
30斑頭(綠)鸕鶿Phalacrocorax capillatusTemminck's Cormorant
31海鸕鶿 Phalacrocorax pelagicusSea Cormorant
32紅臉鸕鶿Phalacrocorax urile Red-faced Cormorant
33黑頸鸕鶿 Phalacrocorax nigerLittle Cormorant
軍艦鳥科 Fregatidae(3)
34小軍艦鳥 Fregata minorLesser Frigate Bird
35白腹軍艦鳥 Fregata andrwsiChristmas Island Frigate Bird
36白斑軍艦鳥 Fregata arielLeast Frigate Bird
鸛形目 CICONIIFORMES
鷺科 Ardeidae (21)
37蒼鷺 Ardea cinereaGrey Heron
38草鷺 Ardea purpureaPurple Heron
39綠鷺Butorides striatusLittle Green Heron
40池鷺 Ardeola bacchusChinese Pond Heron
41牛背鷺 Bubulcus ibisCattle Egret
42白頸黑鷺 Egretta picataPied Heron
43大白鷺 Egretta albaLarge Egret
44白鷺 Egretta garzettaLittle Egret
45黃嘴白鷺 Egretta eulophotesChinese Egret
46巖鷺 Egretta sacraReef Heron
47中白鷺 Egretta intermediaIntermediate Egret
48夜鷺 Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night Heron
49栗頭虎斑鳽 Gorsachius goisagiBrown Night Heron
50海南虎斑鳽 Gorsachius magnificusChinese Night Heron
51黑冠虎斑鳽 Gorsachius melanolophusMalay Night Heron
52小葦鳽 Ixobrychus minutusLittle Bittern
53黃葦鳽 Ixobrychus sinensisYellow Bittern
54紫背葦鳽 Ixobrychus eurhythmus Schrenck's Bittern
55栗葦鳽 Ixobrychus cinnamomeusCinnamon Bittern
56黑鳽 Ixobrychus flavicollisBlack Bittern
57大麻鳽 Botaurus stellarisGreat Bittern
鸛科 Ciconiidae (5)
58彩鸛 Mycteria leucocephalusPainted Stork
59白鸛 Ciconia ciconiaWhite Stork
60東方白鸛 Ciconia boycianaOriental White Stork
61黑鸛 Ciconia nigraBlack Stork
62禿鸛 Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser Adjutant Stork
鹮科 Threskiornithidae (6)
63[黑頭]白鹮 Threskiornis melanocephalusWhite Ibis
64黑鹮 Pseudibis papillosaBlack Ibis
65朱鹮 Nipponia nipponCrested Ibis
66彩鹮 Plegadis falcinellaGlossy Ibis
67白琵鷺 Platalea leucorodiaWhite Spoonbill
68黑臉琵鷺 Platalea minor Black-faced Spoonbill
雁形目ANSERIFORMES
鴨科 Anatidae (47)
69黑雁 Branta berniclaBrant Goose
70紅胸黑雁 Branta ruficollis Red-breasted Goose
71鴻雁 Anser cygnoidesSwan Goose
72豆雁 Anser fabalisBean Goose
73白額雁 Anser albifrons White-fronted Goose
74小白額雁 Anser erythropusLesser White-fronted Goose
75灰雁 Anser anserGreylag Goose
76斑頭雁 Anser indicusBar-headed Goose
77雪雁 Anser caerulescensSnow Goose
78大天鵝 Cygnus cygnusWhooper Swan
79小天鵝 Cygnus columbianusWhistling Swan
80疣鼻天鵝 Cygnus olorMute Swan
81[栗]樹鴨 Dendrocygna javanicaLesser Whistling Teal
82赤麻鴨 Tadorna ferrugineaRuddy Shelduck
83翹鼻麻鴨 Tadorna tadornaCommon Shelduck
84針尾鴨 Anas acutaPintail
85綠翅鴨 Anas creccaCommon Teal
86花臉鴨 Anas formosaBaikal Teal
87羅紋鴨 Anas falcataFalcated Teal
88綠頭鴨 Anas platyrhynchosMallard
89斑嘴鴨 Anas poecilorhynchaSpotbill Duck
90赤膀鴨 Anas streperaGadwall
91赤頸鴨 Anas penelopeWigeon
92白眉鴨 Anas querquedulaGarganey
93琵嘴鴨 Anas clypeataShoveller
94云石斑鴨 Marmaronetta angustirostrisMarbled Teal
95赤嘴潛鴨 Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard
96帆背潛鴨 Aythya valisineriaCanvasback
97紅頭潛鴨 Aythya ferinaCommon Pochard
98白眼潛鴨 Aythya nyrocaWhite-eyed Pochard
99青頭潛鴨 Aythya baeriBaer's Pochard
100鳳頭潛鴨 Aythya fuligulaTufted Duck
101斑背潛鴨 Aythya marilaScaup Duck
102鴛鴦 Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
103棉鳧 Nettapus coromandelianusCotton Teal
104瘤鴨 Sarkidiornis melanotosComb Duck
105小絨鴨 Polysticta stelleriSteller's Eider
106黑海番鴨 Melanitta nigraBlack Scoter
107斑臉海番鴨 Melanitta fuscaWhite-winged Scoter
108丑鴨 Histrionicus histrionicusHarlequin Duck
109長尾鴨 Clangula hyemalisLong-tailed Duck
110鵲鴨 Bucephala clangula Goldeneye
111白頭硬尾鴨 Oxyura leucocephalaWhite-headed Duck
112斑頭秋沙鴨 Mergus albellusSmew
113中華秋沙鴨 Mergus squamatusChinese Merganser
114紅胸秋沙鴨 Mergus serrator Red-breastedMerganser
115普通秋沙鴨 Mergus merganserGoosander
隼形目FALCONIFORMES
鷹科Accipitridat(1)
116Pandion haliatus Osprey
鶴形目GRUIFORMES
鶴科Gruidae (9)
117灰鶴 Grus grusCommon Crane
118黑頸鶴 Grus nigricollisBlack-necked Crane
119白頭鶴 Grus monachaHooded Crane
120沙丘鶴 Grus canadensis Shandhill Crane
121丹頂鶴 Grus japonensisRed-crowned Crane
122白枕鶴 Grus vipioWhite-naped Crane
123白鶴 GrusleucogeranusSiberian White Crane
124赤頸鶴 Grus antigoneSarus Crane
125蓑羽鶴 Anthropoides virgoDemoiselle Crane
秧雞科Rallidae (19)
126普通秧雞 Rallus aquaticusWater Rail
127藍胸秧雞 Rallus striatusBlue-breasted Banded Rail
128紅腿斑秧雞 Rallina fasciataRed-legged Crake
129白喉斑秧雞 Rallina eurizonoidesBanded Crake
130長腳秧雞 Crex crexCorn Crake
131白眉秧雞 Porzana cinereaAshy Crake
132姬田雞 Porzana parvaLittle Crake
133小田雞 Porzana pusillaBaillon's Crake
134斑胸田雞 Porzana porzanaSpotted Crake
135紅胸田雞 Porzana fuscaRuddy Crake
136斑脅田雞 Porzana paykulliiBand-beilied Crake
137棕背田雞 Porzana bicolorRufous-backed Crake
138花田雞 Porzana exquisitaSwinhoe's Yellow Rail
139紅腳苦惡鳥 Amaurornis akoolBrown Crake
140白胸苦惡鳥 Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted WaterHen
141董雞 Gallicrex cinereaWater Cock
142黑水雞 Gallinula chloropusMoorhen
143紫水雞 Porphyrio porphyrioPurple Moorhen
144白骨頂 Fulica atraCoot
鸻形目 CHARADRIIFORMES
雉鸻科 Jacanidae (2)
145銅翅水雉 Metapidius indicus Bronge-winged Jacana
146水雉 Hydrophasianus chirurgus Pheasant-tailed Jacana
彩鷸科 Rostratulidae (1)
147彩鷸 Rostratula benghalensisPainted Snipe
蠣鷸科 Haematopodidae (1)
148蠣鷸 Haematopus ostralegusOystercatcher
鸻科 Charadriidae (15)
149鳳頭麥雞 Vanellus vanellusLapwing
150灰頭麥雞 Vanellus cinereusGrey-headed Lapwing
151肉垂麥雞 Vanellus indicus Red-wattledLapwing
152距翅麥雞 Vanellus duvauceliiSpur-winged Lapwing
153灰斑鸻 Pluvialis squatarolaGrey Plover
154金[斑]鸻 Pluvialis dominicaEastern Golden Plover
155劍鸻 Charadrius hiaticulaRinged Plover
156長嘴劍鸻 Charadrius placidus Long-billed Ringed Plover
157金眶鸻 Charadrius dubiusLittle Ringed Plover
158環頸鸻 Charadrius alexandrinusKentish Plover
159蒙古沙鸻 Charadrius mongolusMongolian Plover
160鐵嘴沙鸻 Charadrius leschenaultiiLarge Sand Plover
161紅胸鸻 Charadrius asiaticusCaspian Plover
162東方鸻 Charadrius veredusEastern Sand Plover
163小嘴鸻 Eudromias morinellusDotterel
鷸科 Scolopacidae (48)
164小杓鷸 Numenius minutusLittle Whimbrel
165中杓鷸 Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel  
166白腰杓鷸 Numenius arquataCurlew
167紅腰杓鷸 Numenius madagascariensis Red-rumped Curlew
168黑尾塍鷸 Limosa limosaBlack-tailed Godwit
169斑尾塍鷸 Limosa lapponicaBar-tailed Godwit
170紅腳鶴鷸 Tringa erythropusSpotted Redshank
171紅腳鷸 Tringa totanusRedshank
172澤鷸 Tringa stagnatilisMarsh Sandpiper
173青腳鷸 Tringa nebularia Greenshank
174白腰草鷸 Tringa ochropusGreen Sandpiper
175林鷸 Tringa glareolaWood Sandpiper
176小青腳鷸 Tring a guttifer Armstrong's Sandpiper
177小黃腳鷸 Tringa flavipesLesser Yellowlegs
178灰鷸 Tringa incanaGrey Sandpiper
179磯鷸 Tringa hypoleucosCommon Sandpiper
180灰尾漂鷸 Heteroscelus brevipesGrey-rumped Sandpiper
181漂鷸 Heteroscelus incanusGery Sandpiper
182翹嘴鷸 Xenus cinereusTerek Sandpiper
183翻石鷸 Arenaria interpres Turnstone
184長嘴鷸 Limnodromus scolopaceusLong-billed Dowitcher
185半蹼鷸 Limnodromus semipalmatusSnipe-billed Godwit
186孤沙錐 Gallinago solitariaSolitary Snipe
187澳南沙錐 Gallinago hardwickii Latham's Snipe
188林沙錐 Gallinago nemoricolaWood Snipe  
189針尾沙錐 Gallinago stenuraPintail Snipe
190大沙錐 Gallinago megalaSwinhoe's Snipe
191扇尾沙錐 Gallinago gallinagoFantail Snipe
192丘鷸 Scolopax rusticolaWoodcock
193姬鷸 Lymnocryptes minimusJack Snipe
194紅腹濱鷸 Calidris canutusRed Knot
195大濱鷸 Calidris tenuirostrisGreat Knot
196紅胸濱鷸 Calidris ruficollisRed-necked Stint
197西方濱鷸 Calidris mauriWestern Sandpiper
198長趾濱鷸 Calidris subminutaLong-toed Stint
199小濱鷸 Calidris minutaLittle Stint
200烏腳濱鷸 Calidris temminckiiTemminck's Stint
201尖尾濱鷸 Calidris acuminataSharp-tailed Stint
202巖濱鷸 Calidris ptilocnemisRock Sand-piper
203黑腹濱鷸 Calidris alpinaDunlin
204彎嘴濱鷸 Calidris ferrugineaCurlew Stint
205斑胸濱鷸 Calidris melanotosPectoral Sandpiper
206三趾濱鷸 Crocethia alba Sanderling
207勺嘴鷸 Eurynorhynchus pygmeusSpoon-billedSandpiper
208闊嘴鷸 Limicola falcinellusBroad-billed Sandpiper
209高蹺鷸 Micropalama himantopusStilt Sandpiper
210黃胸鷸 Tryngites subruficillisBuff-breastedSandpiper
211流蘇鷸 Philomachus pugnaxRuff
反嘴鷸科 Recurvirostridae (3)  
212鹮嘴鷸 Ibidorhyncha struthersiiIbis-bill
213黑翅長腳鷸 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stint
214反嘴鷸 Recurvirostra avosettaPied Avocet
瓣蹼鷸科Phalaropodidae (2)
215紅頸瓣蹼鷸 Phalaropus lobatusRed-necked Phalarope
216灰瓣蹼鷸 Phalaropus fulicariusGrey Phalarope
石鸻科Burhinidae (2)
217大石鸻 Esacus magnirostrisGreat Stone Plover
218石鸻 Burhinus oedicnemusStone Curlew
燕鸻科 Glareolidae (2)
219普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarumOriental Pratincole
220灰燕鸻 Glareola lacteaSmall Pratincole
鷗形目LARIFORMES
賊鷗科 Stercorariidae (4)
221中賊鷗 Stercorarius pomarinusPomatorhine Skua
222大賊鷗 Catharacta skuaGreat Skua
223短尾賊鷗 Stercorarius parasiticusShort-tailed Skua
224長尾賊鷗 Stercorarius longicaudusLong-tailed Skua
鷗科 Laridae (33)
225黑尾鷗 Larus crassirostrisBlack-tailed Gull
226海鷗 Larus canusCommon Gull
227銀鷗 Larus argentatusHerring Gull
228灰背鷗 Larus schistisagusSlaty-backed Gull
229灰翅鷗 Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
230北極鷗 Larus hyperboreusGlaucous Gull
231漁鷗 Larus ichthyaetusGreat Black-headed Gull
232遺鷗 Larus relictusRelict Gull
233紅嘴鷗 Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull
234棕頭鷗 Larus brunnicephalusBrown-headed Gull
235細嘴鷗 Larus geneiSlender-billed Gull
236小鷗Larus minutus Little Gull
237黑嘴鷗 Larus saundersiSaunder's Gull
238三趾鷗 Rissa tridactylaBlacked-leggedKittiwake
239楔尾鷗 Rhodostethia roseaWedge-tailed Gull
240須浮鷗 Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern
241白翅浮鷗 Chlidonias leucopteraWhite-winged Black Tern
242黑浮鷗 Chlidonias nigerBlack Tern
243鷗嘴噪鷗 Gelochelidon niloticaGull-billed Tern
244紅嘴巨鷗 Hydroprogne caspiaCaspian Tern
245黃嘴河燕鷗 Sterna aurantiaRiver Tern
246普通燕鷗 Sterna hirundo Common Tern
247粉紅燕鷗 Sterna dougalliiRoseate Tern
248黑枕燕鷗 Sterna sumatrana Black-naped Tern
249黑腹燕鷗 Sterna melanogasterBlack-bellied Tern
250褐翅燕鷗 Sterna anaethetusBrown-winged Tern
251烏燕鷗 Sterna fuscataSooty Tern
252白額燕鷗 Sterna albifrons Little Tern
253大鳳頭燕鷗 Thalasseus bergiiLarge Crested Tern
254小鳳頭燕鷗 Thalasseus bengalensisLittle Crested Tern
255黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗 Thalasseus bernsteiniChinese Lesser Crested Tern
256白頂黑燕鷗 Anous stolidusCommon Noddy
257白燕鷗 Gygis albaWhite Tern
剪嘴鷗科Rynchopidae (1)
258剪嘴鷗 Rhynchops albicollisIndian Skimmer
海雀科Alcidae(4)
259扁嘴海雀 Synthiboramphus antiquus Ancient Murrelet
260斑海雀 Brachyramphus marmoratusMarbled Murrelet
261角嘴海雀 Cerorhinca monocerataHornbilled Auklet
262冠海雀 Synthliboraphus antiqusCrested Murrelet
鴞形目STRIGIFORMES
鴟鴞科 Strigidae(3)
263毛腿漁鴞 Ketupa blakistoniBlackiston's Fish Owl
264褐漁鴞 Ketupa zeylonensisBrown Fish Owl
265黃腳漁鴞 Ketupa flavipesTawny Fish Owl
佛法僧目CORACIIFORMES
翠鳥科 Aleedinidae(6)
266冠魚狗 Ceryle lugubrusCrested PiedKingfisher
267斑魚狗 Ceryle rudisLesser Pied Kingfisher
268普通翠鳥 Alcedo atthisCommon Kingfisher
269赤翡翠 Halcyon coromandaRuddy Kingfisher
270白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted Kingfisher
271籃翡翠 Halcyon pileataBlack-capped Kingfisher
燃烧的慾望走势图
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